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青花的魅力:每个时代都具有不同的时代特色

发布时间: 2014-06-06

 

  
唐青花
 
  唐代的青花瓷器是处于青花瓷的滥觞期。能见到的标本只有20世纪70―80年代扬州出土的青花瓷残片20余片,通过对瓷片的胎、釉、彩进行研究,可确认唐青花的产地在河南巩县窑。从扬州出土的青花瓷片来看,其青料发色浓艳,带结晶斑,为低锰低铁含铜钴料,应是从中西亚地区进口的钴料。胎质多粗松,呈米灰色,烧结度较差。底釉白中泛黄,釉质较粗。胎釉之间施化妆土。器型以小件为主,有复、碗、罐、盖等。纹饰以花草纹为主。
 
宋青花
 
  唐青花经过初创期以后,并没有迅速发展起来,而是走向了衰败。现在能见到的宋青花只有从两处塔基遗址出土的十余片瓷片。一是1957年发掘于浙江省龙泉县的金沙塔塔基,共出土13片青花碗残片。另一处是1970年在浙江省绍兴市环翠塔的塔基,出土了一片青花碗腹部的残片。这10余片宋青花瓷片都是碗的残片。胎质有粗有细。纹饰有菊花纹、圆圈纹、弦纹、线纹等。
 
元青花
 
  成熟的青花瓷出现在元代的景德镇。元青花瓷的胎由于采用了“瓷石+高岭土”的二元配方,使胎中的三氧化二铝含量增高,烧成温度提高,焙烧过程中的变形率减少。胎色略带灰、黄,胎质疏松。底釉分青白和卵白两种,乳浊感强。
元青花的纹饰最大特点是构图丰满,层次多而不乱。笔法以一笔点画多见,流畅有力;勾勒渲染则粗壮沉着。主题纹饰的题材有人物、动物、植物等。人物有高士图、历史人物等;动物有龙凤、麒麟、鸳鸯、游鱼等;植物常见的有牡丹、莲花、兰花等。
 
明清青花
 
  明清时期是青花瓷器达到鼎盛又走向衰落的时期。明永乐、宣德时期是青花瓷器发展的一个高峰,这时期的瓷器以制作精美著称;清康熙时以“五彩青花”使青花瓷发展到了巅峰;清乾隆以后因粉彩瓷的发展而逐渐走向衰退,虽在清末(光绪)时一度兴盛,终是无法延续康熙朝的盛势。总的说来,明清青花的官窑器制作严谨、精致;民窑瓷器则随意、洒脱,画面写意性强。从明晚期开始,青花绘画逐步吸收了一些中国画绘画技法的元素。明初的青花器有大小盘、碗、梅瓶、玉壶春瓶等。

 

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